Asian women smoking cigarettes
He unsheathed a Parliament and took a long drag, as though he were taking in a breath of relief. All around him, other Asian men engaged in the same ritual, on the sidewalks, in doorways and on bicycles.
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As an alternative, individual interviews were conducted with those who were randomly selected from the online telephone directory. All measures but one described next had been used with Korean Americans in studies [ 23 ] and their psychometric properties have been reported elsewhere [ 33 — 35 ]. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting.
Smoking prevalence among asian americans: findings from the national latino and asian american study (nlaas)
Among the TPB variables, negative attitudes i. Thus, scores of the two referent groups were not combined.
The two analyzers compared the themes in each category and discussed until they resolved discrepancies. The mean age of all participants was Exactly half were married, and the vast majority of them Individuals Almost half of the participants Slightly more than half Regression analyses yielded similar in factors associated with quit intentions between the two samples.
Asian women smoking cigarettes perceived friend norm was a ificant factor of the intentions, it was no longer ificant when perceived family norm was controlled for. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Verbal consent was obtained from each participant prior to the interview. Findings pertaining to men were reported elsewhere [ 28 ]. Similar to what has been found among Asian men, however, smoking rates among Asian women vary across ethnic subgroups [ 2 — 5 ] and by acculturation level [ 5 — 7 ]. However, stage of behavior change for quitting did not differ between the two.
We also examined in this study whether alcohol use would be a correlate of smoking in Korean American women. The following four open-ended questions were used: a tell me how you started smoking, b tell me why you continued to smoke, c tell me what made you want to quit, and d tell me whether you have perceived or experienced any barriers to seeking help for quitting. They were assessed using a 4-item, 7-point Likert-type scale e.
Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. The random sample was more likely to be interviewed in English than the convenience sample The random sample had greater intentions to quit smoking within the next two weeks than the convenience sample. When an interview with a randomly selected smoker was completed, we asked the person to pass out our contact information to Korean women whose daily smoking status was certain to them.
Of 1, cotinine-verified smokers, Korean American women may also underreport their use, particularly among those who are Korean-culture oriented. Although marginally ificantthe random sample initiated smoking later than the convenience sample. Based on the theoretical proposition of the TPB, Korean American women who had more positive attitudes and fewer negative attitudes toward quitting, stronger social norms favoring quitting, and greater self-efficacy in quitting would have greater intentions to quit smoking.
Demographic information was gathered in the following areas: age, marital status, education, annual family income, employment status, and health insurance coverage. The following information was obtained: the age at smoking onset, smoking at home and at work, of cigarettes smoked per day on average, quit Asian women smoking cigarettes that lasted at least 24 hours in the past year, and the of the attempts and use of any smoking cessation aids including medications.
A respondent-driven sampling RDS technique was implemented for women only. This variable was assessed using an indirect measure, the Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire [ 36 ]. Selected households were called up to seven times at various times of a day and days of a week, including evenings and weekends. After the completion of the survey that took about 30 minutes on average, we further invited women who were randomly identified for an in-depth interview.
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In addition, we explored their experiences with smoking and quitting, conducting in-depth interviews. This variable was assessed using a measure of two items regarding normative beliefs e. This additional interview took 25 minutes on average. Sun S. It employed a mixed-methods research de, using qualitative and quantitative data. The brief form has five question items language spoken, language preferred, language read, childhood friends, and cultural identity that had the highest item-to-total correlations among 21 items in its full version [ 38 ].
The scale score is the sum of the scores of the six items, ranging from 0 to Higher scores indicate higher dependence on nicotine. Quantitative data were analyzed using the SPSS version Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample with respect to sociodemographic data, acculturation, alcohol problems, age at smoking initiation, nicotine dependence, quit attempt s in the past year, and the TPB variables attitudes, perceived social norms, self-efficacy, and quit intentions.
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Smoking Korean women were more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke at home than nonsmoking Korean women [ 13 ]. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress.
The scale score is the sum of the scores of the 10 items. It was developed by the World Health Organization to be used as a simple method of screening for hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking. Within the ethnic group, women were far less likely than men to disclose their smoking status, and, hence, we used multiple sampling strategies to recruit Korean American women. We initially planned to have a focus group interview, but most women declined to participate in such a group interview due to the fear that their smoking status could be known to everyone in their small Korean community.
Demographics and smoking behavior were entered first and then TPB variables to examine whether the variables had additional explanatory power of the variance in quit intentions. Thus, data were combined, and are presented in Table 2. Given this, smoking prevalence in Korean American women may be much higher than what has been reported. The sample comprised 94 women Table 1. We developed a Korean version through a rigorous process of cross-cultural validation, including translations and back translations and pilot tests with Korean American smokers.
The RDS is an innovative adaptation of chain-referral network sampling that provides peer-driven access to hard-to-reach subpopulations while reducing sampling biases associated with conventional snowball sampling [ 3132 ]. Chi square tests for categorical variables and two-sample t -tests for continuous variables were performed to compare demographics and key study variables between two samples: random and convenience.
Asian woman smoking images
Two bilingual Korean doctorates independently analyzed qualitative data using a constant comparison method [ 44 ]. In contrast, there is a strong cultural taboo against smoking by women in Korea. Tobacco use is widely recognized as the most preventable cause of illness and death in the United States US. Inan estimated Of the US population, Asian Americans present the most striking gender difference in smoking rates [ 2 — 5 ].
The survey was conducted between October and September The households were identified from the top Korean populated cities in 27 states based on the US Census [ 29 ]. We interviewed only one per household and a woman over a man if the household had both male and female smokers.
While Asian men of some ethnic subgroups smoke at higher rates than the general US population, their female counterparts reportedly smoke at the lowest rate 4. Member checking [ 45 ] was also implemented by asking questions in subsequent interviews to validate emerging themes. The random sample was more likely to be olderand less educatedthan the convenience sample. Three bilingual Korean Americans two female doctorates and one male doctoral student conducted the survey in English or Korean depending on the preference of the person being interviewed.
Smokers are often conflicted by the discrepancy between perceived social norms for family and for friends, many of whom also smoke. If the smoker was not present at the time of the call, permission was obtained to call the again and information was sought about the best time to contact the smoker.
Given the paucity of published tobacco studies on this ethnic subgroup, we also conducted in-depth interviews with women only. We wanted to know why Korean American women started smoking, why they continued to smoke, what would motivate them to quit smoking, and what hindered them from seeking help for quitting.
They then grouped the themes into : smoking initiation, smoking continuation, quit attempts, and actual and perceived Asian women smoking cigarettes to seeking help for quitting. Men in Korea typically become regular smokers during mandatory military service and continue to smoke, adhering to the cultural values of collectivism and conformity Asian women smoking cigarettes 1415 ]. Of the 49 women who were randomly selected, 31 Themes were identified from statements provided in response to the four open-ended questions.
Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. All variables were assessed for multicollinearity, skewness, and violation of normal distribution. Households were selected from the list with an identification that was randomly generated. Those who answered the call were inquired about ethnicity of the household and the presence of any adult smokers. None of the existing studies [ 5 — 711 — 13 ] provided information on factors predicting quit intentions in Korean American women.
Thus, TPB researchers e. This study employed a mixed-methods research de and is part of a larger telephone survey study conducted with a nationwide sample of Korean Americans. Participants were restricted to daily smokers because we wanted to gather information that could be adapted in the development of a smoking cessation program for Korean Americans. To be included in the study, they were required to a self-identify as Korean, b be able to speak English or Korean, c be of age of 18 or older, and d have smoked at least one cigarette a day for the past six months.
The mean score is the scale score for each subscale. In addition, among certain segments of this population smoking rates have been on the rise. Acculturation level showed a high correlation with smoking status [ 5 — 7 ]. Reflecting the distinctive gender-based sociocultural norm of smoking, a recent population-based survey [ 16 ] in Korea showed a substantial underreport of smoking among women as compared to men when self-reported smoking rates were compared with urinary cotinine levels.
In the study by Song and colleagues [ 7 ], the rate of current smoking was relatively high at However, this difference might be related to a high rate of underreport among less-acculturated women as compared to the more acculturated. A positive association of alcohol use with smoking has been found among Korean American men [ 1920 ] and Korean American college students [ 21 ].
Such information may help health workers be better equipped to address increasing smoking prevalence rates in this ethnic subgroup. We also used self-efficacy instead of perceived behavioral control in this study. This sampling technique has been widely adopted in population-based studies of Korean Americans e. Six tobacco research articles [ 5 — 711 — 13 ] have been published to date that have any information on Korean American women, but findings are limited to reports on correlates of smoking and of quit attempts.
Korean American women who were not married were found to have more than 3 times the odds of being smokers as compared to married Korean American women [ 11 ]. The theory also proposes that the intention determines actual performance of the behavior.